James II Stuart, King of Great Britain1

M, #101351, b. 14 October 1633, d. 16 September 1701
Last Edited=11 Feb 2012
Consanguinity Index=0.57%
James Stuart, Duke of York
Oil on canvas by Sir Peter Lely, 1661 2
     James II Stuart, King of Great Britain was born on 14 October 1633 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England.4 He was the son of Charles I Stuart, King of Great Britain and Henriette Marie de Bourbon, Princesse de France.1 He was baptised on 24 November 1633 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England.5 He married, firstly, Lady Anne Hyde, daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon and Frances Aylesbury, on 24 November 1659 in a private marriage. They were remarried publicly on 3 September 1660, at Worcester House, The Strand, london.4 He married, secondly, Mary Beatrice Eleanora Anne Margaret Isabella d'Este, daughter of Alfonso IV d'Este, Duca di Modena and Laura Martinozzi, on 21 November 1673 at Dover, Kent, England.6 He was also reported to have been married on 24 December 1659 at Breda, The Netherlands. He died on 16 September 1701 at age 67 at Château of St. Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Île-de-France, France, from a stroke.7 He was buried at Chapel of St. Edmund, Church of the English Benectines, Rue St. Jacques, Paris, France.7
     He gained the title of Prince James of England and Scotland on 14 October 1633.8 He was invested as a Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) on 20 April 1642.4 He graduated from Oxford University, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, on 1 November 1642 with a Master of Arts (M.A.).5 He was created 1st Duke of York [England] on 27 January 1644.5 In July 1646 he was committed to the custody of the Earl of Northumberland by Parliament.5 On 20 April 1648 he escaped from St. James's Palace, and made his way to the Hague, disguised as a woman.9 He held the office of Lord High Admiral [England] between 1649 and 1660, to the exiled King Charles II.9 He was invested as a Privy Counsellor (P.C.) before 11 August 1649.9 He held the office of Governor of Jersey between February 1650 and August 1650.9 He fought in the French service between 1652 and 1655, under Turenne.9 He fought in the Battle of the Dunes on 3 June 1658, where he earned distinction by twice charging home against the Cromwellian infantry, but could not break them.9 He was created 1st Earl of Ulster [Ireland] on 10 May 1659.9 He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of the Cinque Ports between 1660 and 1673.9 He held the office of Constable of Dover Castle between 1660 and 1673.9 He held the office of Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports between 1660 and 1673.9 He held the office of Captain-General of the Artillery Company of London between 1660 and 1688.9 He held the office of Lord High Admiral [England] between June 1660 and June 1673.9 He was created Duc de Normandie [France] on 31 December 1660.4 He was created 1st Duke of Albany [Scotland] on 31 December 1660.8 He held the office of Keeper and Captain of Portsmouth between 1661 and 1673.9 He was Governor of the Company of the Royal Fishery of England on 22 August 1661.9 He was admitted to Inner Temple on 3 November 1661 entitled to practice as a Barrister and Bencher.10 He was Chief Commissioner for the government of Tangier between 1662 and 1673.10 He held the office of Lord High Admiral of Dunkirk, Tangier and all foreign possessions in Africa and America on 27 February 1661/62.10 He and Arabella Churchill were associated circa 1665.11 He and Hon. Margaret Brooke were associated. He was invested as a Fellow, Royal Society (F.R.S.) on 9 January 1664/65.10 He fought in the Battle of Lowestoft on 3 June 1665, where his fleet completely defeated the Dutch. His flagship, the Royal Charles, sank the ship of the opposing commander, Admiral van Wassanaer.10 He fought in the Battle of Solebay on 28 May 1672, where he was surprised by de Ruyter, and fought a drawn battle with heavy losses on both sides.10 He held the office of Lord High Admiral [Scotland] on 1 February 1672/73.10 He was Generalissimo of the Forces, both Horse and Foot, against the Dutch on 26 April 1673.10 In June 1673 he was compelled under the Test Act [1673] to resign all of his offices.10 He was invested as a Privy Counsellor (P.C.) [Scotland] on 18 May 1674.10 He held the office of a Member of the Council [Scotland] on 4 December 1679.10 He and Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester were associated.12 He held the office of Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament [Scotland] on 5 July 1681.10 He was Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company between 1683 and 1685.6 He held the office of Lord High Admiral [England] between May 1684 and December 1688.6 He succeeded to the title of King James II of Great Britain on 6 February 1685.13 He was crowned King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith on 23 April 1685 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England.13 He abdicated as King of Great Britain on 11 December 1688.7 He was deposed as King of England on 23 December 1688.7
     Prior to taking the throne, James had been Duke of York. Parliament knew that James was a Catholic but as he declared that he would protect the Church of England they decided to give him a chance to prove his word. James wished that Anglicans, Catholics and Dissenters should be treated equally but Parliament insisted only the Anglican faith should be recognised. In 1685, James the Duke of Monmouth (illegitimate son of Charles II by Lucy Walter) landed at Lyme Regis in a rebellion against James. He was defeated at Sedgemoor and executed on Tower Hill. Judge Jeffries was then sent to the West Country to deal with the prisoners at the Bloody Assizes and over a thousand were hanged or deported. James did not call Parliament for over two years and appointed Catholics to key positions. The whole country was alarmed at James's dispensations to the Catholics and many feared that another Civil War would start. James's opponents sparked off the Glorious Revolution by inviting the Protestant William II of Orange. In November 1688, William of Orange, who had married Mary, Charles I's daughter, landed with an invasion force from Holland at Torbay and the whole country came to his support. James was forced to flee and in December 1688 fled the country for ever. Parliament declared that James had abdicated (12 Feb. 1689). He made an effort to regain it later, but was heavily defeated at the battle of the Boyne in Ireland. He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.14
     

Children of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain and Lady Anne Hyde

Children of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain and Arabella Churchill

Children of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain and Mary Beatrice Eleanora Anne Margaret Isabella d'Este

Children of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain and Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester

Child of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain

Citations

  1. [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 82. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
  2. [S328] National Galleries of Scotland, online http://www.nationalgalleries.org. Hereinafter cited as National Galleries of Scotland.
  3. [S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
  4. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 258. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  5. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 914.
  6. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 917.
  7. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 263.
  8. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume I, page 83.
  9. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 915.
  10. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 916.
  11. [S8] BP1999 volume 2, page 1866. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S8]
  12. [S37] BP2003 volume 2, page 2673. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
  13. [S4] C.F.J. Hankinson, editor, DeBretts Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage and Companionage, 147th year (London, U.K.: Odhams Press, 1949), page 21. Hereinafter cited as DeBretts Peerage, 1949.
  14. [S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995), reference "James II, 1633-1701". Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.
  15. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 496.
  16. [S47] BIFR1976 See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S47]
  17. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 162.
  18. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume I, page 90.
  19. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 177.
  20. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume I, page 135.

Lady Anne Hyde

F, #101352, b. 12 March 1637/38, d. 31 March 1671
Last Edited=20 Jan 2011
Anne, Duchess of York
by Peter Lely, 1665 1
     Lady Anne Hyde was born on 12 March 1637/38 at Cranbourne Lodge, Windsor, Berkshire, England.4 She was also reported to have been born on 22 March 1637. She was the daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon and Frances Aylesbury.4 She married James II Stuart, King of Great Britain, son of Charles I Stuart, King of Great Britain and Henriette Marie de Bourbon, Princesse de France, on 24 November 1659 in a private marriage. They were remarried publicly on 3 September 1660, at Worcester House, The Strand, london.4 She was also reported to have been married on 24 December 1659 at Breda, The Netherlands. She died on 31 March 1671 at age 33 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England, from cancer.4 She was buried on 5 April 1671 at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England.5
      From 24 November 1659, her married name became Stuart.4 As a result of her marriage, Lady Anne Hyde was styled as Duchess of York on 3 September 1660.5
     Described by Samuel Pepys as 'a plain woman, and like her mother, my Lady Chancellor', but by Sir John Revesby as 'a very handsome woman, [and] had a great deale of witt'. The Comte de Gramont wrote 'this Princess had a majestic manner, a figure which was pretty good, not much beauty, a great deal of wit and ... an eye for merit'. Burnet wrote 'she had great knowledge, and a lively sense of things. She soon understood what delonged to a princess and took state on her rather too much ... She was generous and friendly; but was too severe an enemy'.5

Children of Lady Anne Hyde and James II Stuart, King of Great Britain

Citations

  1. [S332] Artcyclopedia, online http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists. Hereinafter cited as Artcyclopedia.
  2. [S328] National Galleries of Scotland, online http://www.nationalgalleries.org. Hereinafter cited as National Galleries of Scotland.
  3. [S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
  4. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 258. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  5. [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume XII/2, page 917. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
  6. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 496.

Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge1

M, #101353, b. 22 October 1660, d. 5 May 1661
Last Edited=20 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.0%
     Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge was born on 22 October 1660 at Worcester House, The Strand, London, England.2 He was the son of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain and Lady Anne Hyde.1 He was baptised on 1 January 1660/61 at Worcester House, The Strand, London, England.1 He died on 5 May 1661 at Whitehall Palace, Whitehall, London, England, from smallpox.2 He was buried on 6 May 1661 at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England.1
     He was styled as Duke of Cambridge, He died before the patent for this title was passed.1

Citations

  1. [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 496. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
  2. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 258. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.

Mary II Stuart, Queen of Great Britain

F, #101354, b. 30 April 1662, d. 28 December 1694
Last Edited=20 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.0%
Queen Mary II of Great Britain
by Sir Peter Lely 1
     Mary II Stuart, Queen of Great Britain was born on 30 April 1662 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England.3 She was the daughter of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain and Lady Anne Hyde. She married William III Henry of Orange, King of Great Britain, son of Willem II von Nassau-Dillenburg, Prince of Orange and Mary Henrietta Stuart, Princess Royal of Great Britain, on 4 November 1677 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England.3 She died on 28 December 1694 at age 32 at Kensington Palace, Kensington, London, England, from smallpox.3 She was buried at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England.3
     She succeeded to the title of Queen Mary II of Great Britain on 13 February 1689.4,3 She was crowned Queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith on 11 April 1689 at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England.4
     Mary was a popular princess in Holland. After the Glorious Revolution, she joined William in England, becoming joint soveriegn as both had a good claim to the throne. Mary administered governmant while William as abroad but acted on his advice. Mary's Dutch tastes helped influence English domestic design, and her selfless good nature won much respect. She has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.5
     

Children of Mary II Stuart, Queen of Great Britain and William III Henry of Orange, King of Great Britain

Citations

  1. [S332] Artcyclopedia, online http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists. Hereinafter cited as Artcyclopedia.
  2. [S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
  3. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 266. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  4. [S4] C.F.J. Hankinson, editor, DeBretts Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage and Companionage, 147th year (London, U.K.: Odhams Press, 1949), page 21. Hereinafter cited as DeBretts Peerage, 1949.
  5. [S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995), reference "Mary II, 1662-1694". Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.

James Stuart, 1st and last Duke of Cambridge1

M, #101355, b. 12 July 1663, d. 20 June 1667
Last Edited=20 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.0%
     James Stuart, 1st and last Duke of Cambridge was born on 12 July 1663 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England.2 He was the son of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain and Lady Anne Hyde.1 He died on 20 June 1667 at age 3 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England.2 He was also reported to have died on 20 June 1667 at Richmond Palace, Richmond, London, England.1 He was buried at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England.2
     He was created 1st Baron of Dauntsey [England] on 23 August 1664.1 He was created 1st Duke of Cambridge [England] on 23 August 1664.1 He was created 1st Earl of Cambridge [England] on 23 August 1664.1 He was invested as a Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) on 3 December 1666.2
     On his death, his titles became extinct.1

Citations

  1. [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 496. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
  2. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 259. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.


Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal

M, #101356, b. 4 July 1666, d. 22 May 1667
Last Edited=20 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.0%
     Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal was born on 4 July 1666 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England.1 He was the son of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain and Lady Anne Hyde. He died on 22 May 1667 at Richmond Palace, Richmond, London, England.1 He was also reported to have died on 22 May 1667 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England. He was buried at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England.1
     He gained the title of Duke of Kendal.

Citations

  1. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 259. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.

Edgar Stuart, 1st and last Duke of Cambridge1

M, #101357, b. 14 September 1667, d. 8 June 1671
Last Edited=20 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.0%
     Edgar Stuart, 1st and last Duke of Cambridge was born on 14 September 1667 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England.2 He was the son of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain and Lady Anne Hyde.1 He died on 8 June 1671 at age 3 at Richmond Palace, Richmond, London, England.2 He was buried on 12 June 1671 at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England.3
     He was created 1st Duke of Cambridge [England] on 7 October 1667.1 He was created 1st Baron of Dauntsey [England] on 7 October 1667.1 He was created 1st Earl of Cambridge [England] on 7 October 1667.1
     On his death, his titles became extinct.1

Citations

  1. [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 496. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
  2. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 259. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  3. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 497.

Henrietta Stuart

F, #101358, b. 13 January 1668/69, d. 15 November 1669
Last Edited=20 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.0%
     Henrietta Stuart was born on 13 January 1668/69 at Whitehall Palace, Whitehall, London, England.1 She was the daughter of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain and Lady Anne Hyde. She died on 15 November 1669 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England.1 She was buried at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England.1

Citations

  1. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 259. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.

Catherine Stuart

F, #101359, b. 9 February 1670/71, d. 5 December 1671
Last Edited=20 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.0%
     Catherine Stuart was born on 9 February 1670/71 at Whitehall Palace, Whitehall, London, England.1 She was the daughter of James II Stuart, King of Great Britain and Lady Anne Hyde. She died on 5 December 1671 at St. James's Palace, St. James's, London, England.1 She was buried at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England.1

Citations

  1. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 259. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.

Mary Beatrice Eleanora Anne Margaret Isabella d'Este1

F, #101360, b. 5 October 1658, d. 7 May 1718
Last Edited=3 Jan 2010
Mary Beatrice d'Este
by Sir Peter Lely, 1672 2
     Mary Beatrice Eleanora Anne Margaret Isabella d'Este was born on 5 October 1658 at Ducal Palace, Modena, Italy.4 She was the daughter of Alfonso IV d'Este, Duca di Modena and Laura Martinozzi. She married James II Stuart, King of Great Britain, son of Charles I Stuart, King of Great Britain and Henriette Marie de Bourbon, Princesse de France, on 21 November 1673 at Dover, Kent, England.5 She died on 7 May 1718 at age 59 at Château of St. Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Île-de-France, France, from cancer.1 She was buried at Abbey of the Visitation of St. Mary of Convent of Chaillot, Chaillot, Île-de-France, France.1
     She gained the title of Queen Mary of Modena. From 21 November 1673, her married name became Stuart.5 As a result of her marriage, Mary Beatrice Eleanora Anne Margaret Isabella d'Este was styled as Queen Consort Mary of Great Britain on 22 April 1685.1 On 29 November 1673 Lord Conway wrote to Lord Essex that 'she is a proper hansome Lady, she hath very good eyes, very good features, and a very good complexion, but she wants the Aire that should sett off all this, and having been bred in a Monastry, knows not how to set one foot before another with any gracefulness.4'

Children of Mary Beatrice Eleanora Anne Margaret Isabella d'Este and James II Stuart, King of Great Britain

Citations

  1. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 260. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  2. [S332] Artcyclopedia, online http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists. Hereinafter cited as Artcyclopedia.
  3. [S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
  4. [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume XII/2, page 918. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
  5. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 917.
  6. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 177.