Joan Plantagenet

F, #102021, b. October 1165, d. 4 September 1199
Last Edited=21 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.46%
     Joan Plantagenet was born in October 1165 at Angers Castle, Angers, Anjou, France.1 She was the daughter of Henry II 'Curtmantle' d'Anjou, King of England and Eleanor, Duchesse d'Aquitaine. She married William II, King of Naples and Sicily, son of William I, King of Naples and Sicily, on 13 February 1177 at Palermo Cathedral, Palermo, Sicily, Italy.1 She married Raimond VI, Comte de Toulouse, son of Raimond V, Comte de Toulouse and Constance de Toulouse, in October 1196 at Rouen, Caux, France.1 She died on 4 September 1199 at age 33 at Fontevraud Abbey, Fontevraud, France, childbirth.1 She was buried at Fontevraud Abbey, Fontevraud, France.1
     As a result of her marriage, Joan Plantagenet was styled as Queen Joan of Sicily on 13 February 1177.1

Child of Joan Plantagenet and William II, King of Naples and Sicily

Children of Joan Plantagenet and Raimond VI, Comte de Toulouse

Citations

  1. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 62. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  2. [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.

William I 'the Conqueror', King of England1

M, #102022, b. between 1027 and 1028, d. 9 September 1087
Last Edited=18 Jan 2013
     William I 'the Conqueror', King of England was born between 1027 and 1028 at Falise Castle, Falaise, Normandy, France, illegitimately.2,3 He was the son of Robert I, 6th Duc de Normandie and Herleva de Falaise. He married Matihilde van Vlaanderen, daughter of Baldwinus V Graaf van Vlaanderen Comte d'Artois Markgraaf van Ename and Adèle Capet, Princesse de France, in 1053 at Cathedral of Notre Dame d'Eu, Normandy, France.3 He died on 9 September 1087 at Priory of St. Gervais, Rouen, Caux, France, from wounds received while fighting.4 He was buried at St. Stephen Abbey, Caen, Normandy, France.4
      William I 'the Conqueror', King of England also went by the nick-name of William 'the Conqueror'.5 William I 'the Conqueror', King of England also went by the nick-name of William 'le Batard' (or in English, the Bastard).5 In 1035 on his father's death, William was recognised by his family as the heir - an exception to the general rule that illegitimacy barred succession. His great uncle looked after the Duchy during William's minority, and his overlord, King Henry I of France, knighted him at the age of 15.6 He succeeded to the title of 7th Duc de Normandie on 22 June 1035.3 He gained the title of Comte de Maine in 1063.3 He fought in the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066 at Hastings, Sussex, England.3 He was crowned King of England on 25 December 1066 at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England, and styled 'Willielmus Rex Anglorum.7' He gained the title of King William I of England on 25 December 1066.7 He fought in the Siege of Mantes in September 1087.4 From 1047 onwards, William successfully dealt with rebellion inside Normandy involving his kinsmen and threats from neighbouring nobles, including attempted invasions by his former ally King Henry I of France in 1054 (the French forces were defeated at the Battle of Mortemer). William's military successes and reputation helped him to negotiate his marriage to Mathilda, daughter of Count Baldwin V of Flanders. At the time of his invasion of England, William was a very experienced and ruthless military commander, ruler and administrator who had unified Normandy and inspired fear and respect outside his duchy. William's claim to the English throne was based on his assertion that, in 1051, Edward the Confessor had promised him the throne (he was a distant cousin) and that Harold II - having sworn in 1064 to uphold William's right to succeed to that throne - was therefore a usurper. Furthermore, William had the support of Emperor Henry IV and papal approval. William took seven months to prepare his invasion force, using some 600 transport ships to carry around 7,000 men (including 2,000-3,000 cavalry) across the Channel. On 28 September 1066, with a favourable wind, William landed unopposed at Pevensey and, within a few days, raised fortifications at Hastings. Having defeated an earlier invasion by the King of Norway at the Battle of Stamford Bridge near York in late September, Harold undertook a forced march south, covering 250 miles in some nine days to meet the new threat, gathering inexperienced reinforcements to replenish his exhausted veterans as he marched.
     At the Battle of Senlac (near Hastings) on 14 October, Harold's weary and under-strength army faced William's cavalry (part of the forces brought across the Channel) supported by archers. Despite their exhaustion, Harold's troops were equal in number (they included the best infantry in Europe equipped with their terrible two-handled battle axes) and they had the battlefield advantage of being based on a ridge above the Norman positions. The first uphill assaults by the Normans failed and a rumour spread that William had been killed; William rode among the ranks raising his helmet to show he was still alive. The battle was close-fought: a chronicler described the Norman counter-attacks and the Saxon defence as 'one side attacking with all mobility, the other withstanding as though rooted to the soil'. Three of William's horses were killed under him. William skilfully co-ordinated his archers and cavalry, both of which the English forces lacked. During a Norman assault, Harold was killed - hit by an arrow and then mowed down by the sword of a mounted knight. Two of his brothers were also killed. The demoralised English forces fled. In 1070, as penance, William had an abbey built on the site of the battle, with the high altar occupying the spot where Harold fell. The ruins of Battle Abbey, and the town of Battle, which grew up around it, remain.
     Three months after his coronation, he was confident enough to return to Normandy leaving two joint regents (one of whom was his half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, who was later to commission the Bayeux Tapestry) behind to administer the kingdom. However, it took William six years to consolidate his conquest, and even then he had to face constant plotting and fighting on both sides of the Channel. In 1068, Harold's sons raided the south-west coast of England (dealt with by William's local commanders), and there were uprisings in the Welsh Marches, Devon and Cornwall. William appointed earls who, in Wales and in all parts of the kingdom, undertook to guard the threatened frontiers and maintain internal security in return for land.
     In 1069, the Danes, in alliance with Prince Edgar the Aetheling (Ethelred's great-grandson) and other English nobles, invaded the north and took York. Taking personal charge, and pausing only to deal with the rising at Stafford, William drove the Danes back to their ships on the Humber. In a harsh campaign lasting into 1070, William systematically devastated Mercia and Northumbria to deprive the Danes of their supplies and prevent recovery of English resistance. Churches and monasteries were burnt, and agricultural land was laid to waste, creating a famine for the unarmed and mostly peasant population which lasted at least nine years. Although the Danes were bribed to leave the north, King Sweyn of Denmark and his ships threatened the east coast (in alliance with various English, including Hereward the Wake) until a treaty of peace was concluded in June 1070.
     Further north, where the boundary with Scotland was unclear, King Malcolm III was encroaching into England. Yet again, William moved swiftly and moved land and sea forces north to invade Scotland. The Treaty of Abernethy in 1072 marked a truce, which was reinforced by Malcolm's eldest son being accepted as a hostage. William consolidated his conquest by starting a castle-building campaign in strategic areas. Originally these castles were wooden towers on earthen 'mottes' (mounds) with a bailey (defensive area) surrounded by earth ramparts, but many were later rebuilt in stone. By the end of William's reign over 80 castles had been built throughout his kingdom, as a permanent reminder of the new Norman feudal order.
     William's wholesale confiscation of land from English nobles and their heirs (many nobles had died at the battles of Stamford Bridge and Senlac) enabled him to recruit and retain an army, by demanding military duties in exchange for land tenancy granted to Norman, French and Flemish allies. He created up to 180 'honours' (lands scattered through shires, with a castle as the governing centre), and in return had some 5,000 knights at his disposal to repress rebellions and pursue campaigns; the knights were augmented by mercenaries and English infantry from the Anglo-Saxon militia, raised from local levies. William also used the fyrd, the royal army - a military arrangement which had survived the Conquest. The King's tenants-in-chief in turn created knights under obligation to them and for royal duties (this was called subinfeudation), with the result that private armies centred around private castles were created - these were to cause future problems of anarchy for unfortunate or weak kings. By the end of William's reign, a small group of the King's tenants had acquired about half of England's landed wealth. Only two Englishmen still held large estates directly from the King. A foreign aristocracy had been imposed as the new governing class.
     The expenses of numerous campaigns, together with an economic slump (caused by the shifts in landed wealth, and the devastation of northern England for military and political reasons), prompted William to order a full-scale investigation into the actual and potential wealth of the kingdom to maximise tax revenues. The Domesday survey was prompted by ignorance of the state of land holding in England, as well as the result of the costs of defence measures in England and renewed war in France. The scope, speed, efficiency and completion of this survey was remarkable for its time and resulted in the two-volume Domesday Book of 1086, which still exists today. William needed to ensure the direct loyalty of his feudal tenants. The 1086 Oath of Salisbury was a gathering of William's 170 tenants-in-chief and other important landowners who took an oath of fealty to William. William's reach extended elsewhere into the Church and the legal system. French superseded the vernacular (Anglo-Saxon). Personally devout, William used his bishops to carry out administrative duties. Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1070, was a first-class administrator who assisted in government when William was absent in France, and who reorganised the Church in England. Having established the primacy of his archbishopric over that of York, and with William's approval, Lanfranc excommunicated rebels, and set up Church or spiritual courts to deal with ecclesiastical matters. Lanfranc also replaced English bishops and abbots (some of whom had already been removed by the Council of Winchester under papal authority) with Norman or French clergy to reduce potential political resistance. In addition, Canterbury and Durham Cathedrals were rebuilt and some of the bishops' sees were moved to urban centres.
     At his coronation, William promised to uphold existing laws and customs. The Anglo-Saxon shire courts and 'hundred' courts (which administered defence and tax, as well as justice matters) remained intact, as did regional variations and private Anglo-Saxon jurisdictions. To strengthen royal justice, William relied on sheriffs (previously smaller landowners, but replaced by influential nobles) to supervise the administration of justice in existing county courts, and sent members of his own court to conduct important trials. However, the introduction of Church courts, the mix of Norman/Roman law and the differing customs led to a continuing complex legal framework. More severe forest laws reinforced William's conversion of the New Forest into a vast Royal deer reserve. These laws caused great resentment, and to English chroniclers the New Forest became a symbol of William's greed. Nevertheless the King maintained peace and order. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1087 declared 'he was a very stern and violent man, so no one dared do anything contrary to his will ... Amongst other things the good security he made in this country is not to be forgotten.'
     William spent the last months of his reign in Normandy, fighting a counter-offensive in the French Vexin territory against King Philip's annexation of outlying Normandy territory. Before his death on 9 September 1087, William divided his 'Anglo-Norman' state between his sons. (The scene was set for centuries of expensive commitments by successive English monarchs to defend their inherited territories in France.) William bequeathed Normandy as he had promised to his eldest son Robert, despite their bitter differences (Robert had sided with his father's enemies in Normandy, and even wounded and defeated his father in a battle there in 1079). His son, William Rufus, was to succeed William as King of England, and the third remaining son, Henry, was left 5,000 pounds in silver.8 He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.9
     

Children of William I 'the Conqueror', King of England and Matihilde van Vlaanderen

Citations

  1. [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.
  2. [S4] C.F.J. Hankinson, editor, DeBretts Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage and Companionage, 147th year (London, U.K.: Odhams Press, 1949), page 20, says 1025. Hereinafter cited as DeBretts Peerage, 1949.
  3. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 41. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  4. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 44.
  5. [S7] Antonia Fraser, Kings and Queens of England (London, U.K.: Cassell & Co., 1998), page 30. Hereinafter cited as Kings and Queens of England.
  6. [S101] The Official Website of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk. Hereinafter cited as Official Website of the British Monarchy.
  7. [S4] C.F.J. Hankinson, DeBretts Peerage, 1949, page 20.
  8. [S1] S&N Genealogy Supplies, S&N Peerage CD., CD-ROM (Chilmark, Salisbury, U.K.: S&N Genealogy Supplies, no date (c. 1999)). Hereinafter cited as S&N Peerage CD.
  9. [S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995). Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.
  10. [S38] John Morby, Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook (Oxford, Oxfordshire, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989), page 86. Hereinafter cited as Dynasties of the World.
  11. [S45] Marcellus Donald R. von Redlich, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, volume I (1941; reprint, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2002), page 56. Hereinafter cited as Pedigrees of Emperor Charlemagne, I.

Matihilde van Vlaanderen1

F, #102023, b. circa 1031, d. 2 November 1083
Last Edited=27 Oct 2013
Consanguinity Index=0.07%
     Matihilde van Vlaanderen was born circa 1031 at Flanders, Belgium.1 She was the daughter of Baldwinus V Graaf van Vlaanderen Comte d'Artois Markgraaf van Ename and Adèle Capet, Princesse de France.1 She married William I 'the Conqueror', King of England, son of Robert I, 6th Duc de Normandie and Herleva de Falaise, in 1053 at Cathedral of Notre Dame d'Eu, Normandy, France.2 She died on 2 November 1083 at Caen, Normandy, France.3 She was buried at Abbey of the Holy Trinity, Caen, Normandy, France.3
     As a result of her marriage, Matihilde van Vlaanderen was styled as Queen Consort Matilda of England on 11 May 1068.3

Children of Matihilde van Vlaanderen and William I 'the Conqueror', King of England

Citations

  1. [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.
  2. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 41. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  3. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 42.
  4. [S45] Marcellus Donald R. von Redlich, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, volume I (1941; reprint, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2002), page 56. Hereinafter cited as Pedigrees of Emperor Charlemagne, I.

Robert III 'Curthose', 8th Duc de Normandie1

M, #102024, b. 1051, d. 10 February 1134
Last Edited=21 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.33%
     Robert III 'Curthose', 8th Duc de Normandie was born in 1051 at Normandy, France.1,2 He was the son of William I 'the Conqueror', King of England and Matihilde van Vlaanderen.3 He married, firstly, Sybilla de Conversano, daughter of Geoffrey de Conversano, Comte de Conversano, in 1100 at Apulia, Sicily, Italy.1 He married, secondly, Margaret de Maine.4 He died on 10 February 1134 at Cardiff Castle, Cardiff, Glamorgan, Wales.1 He was buried at Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.1
     He succeeded to the title of 8th Duc de Normandie on 9 September 1087.1 On 27 September 1106 he was taken prisoner at Tenchebrai and imprisoned in Cardiff Castle by his brother Henry for 28 years. He was deposed as Duke of Normandy on 28 September 1106.1 He fought in the Battle of Tinchebrai on 28 September 1106, where he lost to his brother Henry I.1

Children of Robert III 'Curthose', 8th Duc de Normandie

Children of Robert III 'Curthose', 8th Duc de Normandie and Sybilla de Conversano

Citations

  1. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 42. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  2. [S16] Jirí Louda and Michael MacLagan, Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, 2nd edition (London, U.K.: Little, Brown and Company, 1999), table 2. Hereinafter cited as Lines of Succession.
  3. [S38] John Morby, Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook (Oxford, Oxfordshire, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989), page 86. Hereinafter cited as Dynasties of the World.
  4. [S105] Brain Tompsett, Royal Genealogical Data, online http://www3.dcs.hull.ac.uk/genealogy/royal/. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogical Data.
  5. [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.

Richard of Bernay, Duke of Bernay1

M, #102025, b. 1054, d. circa 1081
Last Edited=24 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.33%
     Richard of Bernay, Duke of Bernay was born in 1054 at Normandy, France.2 He was the son of William I 'the Conqueror', King of England and Matihilde van Vlaanderen. He died circa 1081 at New Forest, Hampshire, England, killed in an accident with a stag, while hunting, unmarried.2 He was buried at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, England.2
     He gained the title of Duke of Bernay [Norman].2

Citations

  1. [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.
  2. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 43. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.


William II 'Rufus', King of England1

M, #102026, b. between 1056 and 1060, d. 2 August 1100
Last Edited=10 Feb 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.33%
King William II of England
by Renold Elstrick 2
     William II 'Rufus', King of England was born between 1056 and 1060 at Normandy, France.3 He was the son of William I 'the Conqueror', King of England and Matihilde van Vlaanderen. He died on 2 August 1100 at New Forest, Hampshire, England, an 'accident' with an arrow while hunting, unmarried He may have been assassinated at the orders on of his younger brother, Henry I.3 He was buried at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, England.1
      William II 'Rufus', King of England also went by the nick-name of William 'Rufus' because of his red face and, like his father, he was fat.4 He succeeded to the title of King William II of England on 9 September 1087.3 He was crowned King of England on 26 September 1087 at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England, and styled 'Dei Gratiâ Rex Anglorum', crowned by Archbishop of Canterbury Llanfranc.5
     William was very fond of his father and always loyal to him. He had a tendancy to stutter when excited. He won military successes in Normandy, and advanced the Norman cause in Wales as well as overcoming rebellions of his barons. The church certainly had no liking for him, a view he reciprocated. He had the reputation of being cruel, harsh, capricious and profligate and yet he was admired by many as a good soldier and leader and a generous man. His true character may be lost forever in the mists of time.4 He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.6
     

Citations

  1. [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.
  2. [S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
  3. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 44. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  4. [S7] Antonia Fraser, Kings and Queens of England (London, U.K.: Cassell & Co., 1998), page 31. Hereinafter cited as Kings and Queens of England.
  5. [S4] C.F.J. Hankinson, editor, DeBretts Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage and Companionage, 147th year (London, U.K.: Odhams Press, 1949), page 20. Hereinafter cited as DeBretts Peerage, 1949.
  6. [S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995). Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.

Cecilia de Normandie,1

F, #102027, b. between 1054 and 1055, d. 3 July 1126
Last Edited=21 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.33%
     Cecilia de Normandie, was born between 1054 and 1055 at Normandy, France.1 She was the daughter of William I 'the Conqueror', King of England and Matihilde van Vlaanderen. She died on 3 July 1126 at Caen, Normandy, France.1 She was also reported to have died on 30 July 1126. She was buried at Abbey of the Holy Trinity, Caen, Normandy, France.2
     She was a nun on 18 June 1066 at Abbey of the Holy Trinity, Caen, Normandy, France.1 She was the Abbess between 1112 and 1126 at Abbey of the Holy Trinity, Caen, Normandy, France.1

Citations

  1. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 43. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  2. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 44.

Agatha de Normandie1

F, #102028, b. circa 1064, d. before 1080
Last Edited=21 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.33%
     Agatha de Normandie was born circa 1064.2 She was the daughter of William I 'the Conqueror', King of England and Matihilde van Vlaanderen. She married Alfonso VI of Galicia, King of Galicia and Léon before 1074 at Abbey of the Holy Trinity, Caen, Normandy, France.2 She died before 1080. She was buried at Bayeaux Cathedral, Bayeaux, Normandy, France.2
     She was also known as Elgiva de Normandie.2 She was also known as Margaret de Normandie.2

Citations

  1. [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.
  2. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 44. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.

Adeliza de Normandie1

F, #102029, b. circa 1055, d. circa 1065
Last Edited=21 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.33%
     Adeliza de Normandie was born circa 1055.1 She was the daughter of William I 'the Conqueror', King of England and Matihilde van Vlaanderen. She and Harold II Godwinson, King of England were engaged circa 1063.2 She died circa 1065.2
     She was a nun.2 She has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.3
     

Citations

  1. [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.
  2. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 44. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  3. [S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995), reference "Adeliza, -1151". Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.

Adela de Normandie1

F, #102030, b. circa 1062, d. 8 March 1137
Last Edited=21 Jan 2011
Consanguinity Index=0.33%
     Adela de Normandie was born circa 1062 at Normandy, France.1 She was the daughter of William I 'the Conqueror', King of England and Matihilde van Vlaanderen.2 She married Stephen II Henry, Comte de Blois, son of Thibaud III, Comte de Blois and Gersende de Maine, in 1080 at Breteuil, France, in a, and again in 1081 at the Chartres Cathedral marriage.3 She died on 8 March 1137 at Marcigny-sur-Loire, France.4 She was buried at Abbey of the Holy Trinity, Caen, Normandy, France.1 She was buried at Cluniac Priory, Marcigny-sur-Loire, France.
     She was a nun circa 1122 at Cluniac Priory, Marcigny-sur-Loire, France.1 She has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.5
     

Children of Adela de Normandie and Stephen II Henry, Comte de Blois

Citations

  1. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 51. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  2. [S45] Marcellus Donald R. von Redlich, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, volume I (1941; reprint, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2002), page 56. Hereinafter cited as Pedigrees of Emperor Charlemagne, I.
  3. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 50.
  4. [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.
  5. [S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995), reference "Adela, c1062-1137". Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.
  6. [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 165. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.